Why Was The Munich Agreement Made

In the face of tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovakian government, on 15 September 1938, Benes secretly proposed to cede 6,000 square kilometres to Czechoslovakia in Germany, in exchange for a German accession agreement of 1.5 to 2.0 million South Germans that expelled Czechoslovakia. Hitler did not respond. [13] On 12 September, at an NSDAP rally in Nuremberg, Hitler gave a speech on the Sudetenland crisis, condemning Czechoslovakia`s action. [9] Hitler denounced Czechoslovakia as a fraudulent state that violated the emphasis on national self-determination of international law and claimed that it was Czech hegemony, whereas the Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians, Ukrainians and Poles of the country actually wanted to be in association with the Czechs. [27] Hitler accused Beneé of wanting to phase out the Sudeten Germans and claimed that since the creation of Czechoslovakia, more than 600,000 Germans had been deliberately evicted from their homes under the threat of starvation if they did not leave. [28] He claimed that the Bene government had persecuted the Germans along with Hungarians, Poles and Slovaks and accused Beneé of threatening nationalities with being accused of treason if they were not loyal to the country. [27] He stated that as head of state of Germany, he would support the right of Germans to self-determination in the Sudetenland. [27] He condemned Benes for the recent execution of several German protesters by his government. [27] He accused Beneé of being belligerent and threatening towards Germany, which, if the war broke out, would force the Sudeten Germans to fight against their will against the Germans in Germany. [27] Hitler accused Czechoslovakia of being a clientelist regime of France, claiming that the French Minister of Aviation, Pierre Cot, had declared: “We need this state as a base to drop bombs more easily, to destroy the German economy and its industry.” [28] The agreement was generally welcomed. French Prime Minister Daladier did not believe, as one scholar put it, that a European war was justified “to keep three million Germans under Czech sovereignty.” But the same is true for Alsace-Lorraine, unlike the alliance between France and Czechoslovakia against German aggression. Gallup Polls, in Britain, France and the United States, said the majority of the population supported the agreement.

In 1939, Czechoslovakian President Beneé was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. [52] When Chamberlain returned from Munich, he said to an excited crowd at Heston airport: “It is peace for our time” and signalled the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler stopped his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. Within a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany. The question of the referendum was the only serious snag in Munich. The “Big Four” could not agree on the areas in which the referendum is to take place. The matter was referred to a committee composed of the ambassadors of the United Kingdom, France and Italy in Berlin, a Czech official and Mr von Weizs-cker of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The German demand and demand will certainly be met – that all those who reside in the area planned for the October 1918 referendum will have the right to vote.

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